Nueve Bx Quick Reference Guide
|Flower Initiation HH:MM||14:30:00.000|
|Target Planting||June - Early July|
|Target Harvest||August - September|
In 2021, Nueve BX is entering its second year of commercial production. This exclusive selection from Beacon Hemp is a squatty plant with short internodes and flowers that stack up nicely. It has a high limonene terpene profile, with notes of lemon and gas, and though it's usually grown for flower, its biomass could be useful as well. At 3-4 foot centers, you can expect 3/4 to 1 lb per plant if you push them with nitrogen (250-300 ppm foliar application or constant feed fertigated 200-250 ppm). Nueve BX needs 14.5 hours of light to remain in a vegetative state.
Powdery mildew and other fungal pathogens can be an issue, but proper air flow and spacing can mitigate these problems. Useful treatments include sulfur (preferably burning), Zerotal, and Bacillus products. Check regulations to verify which chemicals are approved in your area.
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General Growing Tips For Your Hemp Clones
Industrial Hemp has different nutritional needs in different stages of the plant's development. Since you are buying rooted clones, you only need to focus on two major periods of the plant's life-cycle for your grow: vegetative and flowering. New research is always being done in this up-and-coming industry, and university studies are trialing new methods and practices in order to fine-tune Industrial Hemp agronomy. We offer our tried and true practices below, as well as ground-breaking research for you to investigate, test, and implement based on your own soil and plant needs.
Soil and Water Testing
Industrial hemp likes a soil with a pH between 6.0-7.0
. Some new research from N.C. State University
shows that a narrower pH range of 6.2-6.7 in field-grown conditions may be ideal.
A lab can test your irrigation water to help you know which nutrients your soil is getting from your water, which will inform your fertilizer program. Use target PourThru electrical conductivity (EC)
levels to help fine tune fertilizer rates. A low EC level indicates low nutrient availability while a high EC level may suggest that your plants cannot absorb nutrients or that you are over-fertilizing, both of which can cause leaf burn. Aim for the following targets during various stages of growth:
- Early Vegetative:
- Top Irrigation - EC of 1.0-1.5 mS/cm
- Sub-Irrigation - EC of .67-1.0 mS/cm
- Late Vegetative:
- Top Irrigation - EC of 1.5-2.0 mS/cm/cm
- Sub-Irrigation - EC of 1.0-1.3 mS/cm/cm
- Peak Flowering:
- Top Irrigation - EC of 2.0 to 2.5 mS/cm
- Sub-Irrigation - EC of 1.3-1.7 mS/cm
- Top Irrigation - EC of 1.5-2.0 mS/cm
- Sub-Irrigation - EC of 1.0-1.3 mS/cm
Closely monitor the nutrient levels available to your plants and keep them properly fed during the vegetative and flowering stages. These practices are extremely important to the success of your final product. In addition to drought and disease, the pressure of nutrient deficiency or excess nitrogen can cause Hemp plants to go hot. Careful attention to fertilizing (modified to accommodate your soil, environment, and the plant's growing stage) will play a major role in producing compliant plants with high CBD content.
The vegetative stage occurs after the clones have finished rooting and lasts all the way to the flowering stage. During the vegetative stage, industrial hemp plants are storing nutrients by absorbing them through the root system and using photosynthesis in their leaves. The plants need this store of energy to produce flowers later. If your hemp plants are unhealthy during the vegetative stage, they will not produce the maximum yield of CBD in the mature cola.
Nitrogen is the most important nutrient for hemp plants in the vegetative stage. They use this nutrient to build new stems at internodes, produce new leaves, and ultimately to produce CBD in their flowers. For this reason, we use a higher nitrogen rate during the vegetative stage. Depending on your soil, you may also need to add phosphorus and potassium prior to planting to bring it to proper levels.
Our preferred rate is an NPK ratio 3:1:2. For field-grown hemp we use 200 lbs of nitrogen per acre.
For indoor-grown hemp we use 150 ppm N on a constant-feed program
. Your soil will vary, so make sure to test your hemp crop for your local environment.
A study from NC State
suggests a slightly higher nitrogen rate of 150-200 ppm N for the vegetative stage, ramped up to 200-225 ppm N just before flowering, both on a constant-feed program. That study also suggests a rate of 160-200 ppm K and 15-20 ppm P throughout the growth of the plants.
A University of Missouri study
suggests 50-150 pounds per acre of nitrogen applied twice: once prior to planting and once about 10 days after transplant. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizer should be applied based on nutrient levels available in soil.
When growing for high CBD production, the money is in the flower, which is produced during the final stage of the plant's natural reproductive cycle. Industrial hemp is a photoperiodic plant, which means it will begin the flowering stage as soon as the duration of sunlight decreases to a particular amount, which varies slightly between varieties.
When we see flowering starting to develop, we usually run clear water (with no fertilizer) for about two weeks before we start a high phosphorus and potassium feeding program. We use an NPK ratio of 1:3:4
during the flowering stage and then cut back to clear water again about 2 weeks before harvest. Whether you flush your Industrial Hemp
in this manner is up to you.
For field-grown hemp we use 160 lbs of nitrogen per acre
. For indoor-grown hemp we use 100 ppm nitrogen on a constant-feed program
. This NC State study
suggests a rate of 100-150 ppm N constant-feed during peak flowering.
The general rule of thumb for industrial hemp is that the flowering stage will begin when day length is less than 12 hours of sunlight.
Pests & Disease
While pests and disease affect industrial hemp, there is still significant research to be done on which are the most detrimental and how to best protect hemp crops. Since the end of 2019, there are 58 EPA-approved pesticides
to use on hemp. Before using pesticides, check your state regulations.
Some cultivars may have more natural resistance to pests and disease than others.
Some common pests found on industrial hemp:
- Corn Earworm is the most damaging pest for industrial hemp. These insects chew primarily the bud or flower of the plants. The chewing opens wounds in the plant which make it susceptible to gray rot. Monitor plants closely to remove infested plants at the first sign of corn earworm. A pesticide with the active ingredient Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki or Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai may be approved in your state and is one of the few options for managing a corn earworm infestation.
- Cannabis Aphid is a rapidly reproducing aphid that can harm plant growth. More problematically, they excrete a sticky waste which makes cannabinoid extraction more difficult and can contaminate raw plant materials. Ladybugs are a natural enemy who can live entirely on a diet of aphids. Margosa and azadirachtin oils may also help control aphid populations.
- Hemp Russet Mites are microscopic four-legged mites which spread through trade of plants and by wind. They are especially harmful to greenhouse crops because of how close plants are and the mobility of the mites. They stunt growth and reduce leaf pairs and can cause irreparable damage to plants in a short time. Venerate is a promising chemical solution for this pest, but preventative action is most effective. Scout plants regularly and isolate any infested plants. Crops grown outdoors tend to be less affected.
- Caterpillars are present on hemp plants in various studies, but have not been shown to be particularly harmful.
Some common diseases that affect industrial hemp are:
- Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (White Mold)
- Botrytis cinerea (Gray Mold)
Be cautious with any use of pesticides, as they can contaminate the crop. Hemp is a bioaccumulative crop which easly absorbs pesticides (as well as heavy metals) from the soil. Soil testing
is extremely important for this reason, and you must use pesticides sparingly, even if they're approved for use. With so few pesticide or fungicide options, prevention is the best method of protection.
Start with healthy plants and use sanitary practices for transplanting, including isolating new plants for 1-2 weeks upon arrival to monitor them for disease or insects. Since fungal diseases are the main issue with hemp, excessive moisture and high humidity are the greatest risk factors. Plant in fields with well-drained soil, no prior history of diseases that affect hemp, good airflow, and no weeds. Consider planting CBD hemp into raised beds and position plant beds or rows for best drainage and airflow. Level any low spots so there's no place for water to accumulate and stand. Control irrigation water and do not overwater, especially during heavy rain. Give plants plenty of space for airflow and plant in sunny fields. Control weeds and remove diseased plants, but don't compost weeds or diseased plants. If you choose to use a fungicide, do it at the first signs of disease and use it at the prescribed rate.
Resources on pests and disease:
Most growers use a hand-harvest process for industrial hemp grown for CBD or CBG. Researchers are still developing methods to increase efficiency while protecting highly valuable flowers. Generally whole plants are heat- or air-dried to cure, then buds removed and the remainder of the plant thrown away. Mechanical options for harvesting increase potential damage to the plants. Most growers aim for 1-2 pounds of dry matter per plant with 8-10% CBD per pound.